The inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is an important cause of neurological damage and repair. After cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, microglia are activated, and a large number of circulating inflammatory cells infiltrate the affected area. This leads to the secretion of inflammatory mediators and an inflammatory cascade that eventually causes secondary brain damage, including neuron necrosis, blood-brain barrier destruction, cerebral edema, and an oxidative stress response. Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways plays a key role in the pathological process of ischemic stroke. Increasing evidence suggests that acupuncture can reduce the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and promote repair of the injured nervous system. Acupuncture can not only inhibit the activation and infiltration of inflammatory cells, but can also regulate the expression of inflammation-related cytokines, balance the effects of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, and interfere with inflammatory signaling pathways. Therefore, it is important to study the transmission and regulatory mechanism of inflammatory signaling pathways after acupuncture treatment for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury to provide a theoretical basis for clinical treatment of this type of injury using acupuncture. Our review summarizes the overall conditions of inflammatory cells, mediators, and pathways after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, and discusses the possible synergistic intervention of acupuncture in the inflammatory signaling pathway network to provide a foundation to explore the multiple molecular mechanisms by which acupuncture promotes nerve function restoration.

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PubMed