Melioidosis is caused by Gram-negative bacterium . Clinical presentation can vary from pneumonia, sepsis and multi-focal abscess formation. The aim of this study was to systemically review the cardiac manifestations of melioidosis in the literature and describe their epidemiology, microbiological diagnosis and outcomes. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature was carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar for human melioidosis cases with cardiac involvement. Quantitative data for cases of melioidosis were obtained, including age, sex, microbiological diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. 980 articles were screened, of which 31 articles were eligible. The most common cardiac site of infection was pericarditis, followed by endocarditis and myocarditis. Over 95% of cardiac involvement occurred in males, and mortality was the lowest in pericarditis and highest in myocarditis. Valvular vegetations were all small, left-sided, and did not require surgery. Antibiotic treatment included a bactericidal induction therapy with ceftazidime or a carbapenem ± TMP-SMX, followed by eradication therapy with TMP-SMX in most patients as previously established. In conclusion, melioidosis varies in clinical presentation and is also known as a great imitator. Although cardiac involvement is rare, this is the first systematic review to summarise all cases reported in the literature to date.

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PubMed