BMC nephrology 2018 03 0919(1) 57 doi 10.1186/s12882-018-0855-z
Membranous nephropathy (MN), the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults, is characterized by the deposition of subepithelial immune deposits. Most of the cases are primary, while only approximately 25% of the cases are secondary to some known diseases. Recently, MN has been considered to be a possible presentation of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the kidney in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. In autologous HSCT populations, there have been scarce reports of associated MN, as a result of immune dysregulation leading to systemic autoimmunity and miming chronic GVHD.
We report an exceptional case of MN associated to an acute renal failure occurring within days following an autologous HSCT indicated by multiple myeloma. There was no evidence of GVHD or myeloma relapse. A complete remission of nephrotic syndrome with normalization of renal function were rapidly obtained by corticosteroid therapy.
This is the first published case of acute renal failure due to MN occurring in the acute phase of an autologous HSCT. These findings support the antibodymediated autoimmune glomerular disease.