To explore the associations of genetically proxied TYK2 inhibition with a wide range of disease outcomes and biomarkers to identify therapeutic repurposing opportunities, adverse effects, and biomarkers of efficacy.
The loss-of-function missense variant rs34536443 in TYK2 gene was used as a genetic instrument to proxy the effect of TYK2 inhibition. A phenome-wide Mendelian randomization (MR) study was conducted to explore the associations of genetically-proxied TYK2 inhibition with 1473 disease outcomes in UK Biobank (N = 339,197). Identified associations were examined for replication in FinnGen (N = 260,405). We further performed tissue-specific gene expression MR, colocalization analyses, and MR with 247 blood biomarkers. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on TYK2 inhibitor was performed to complement the genetic evidence.
PheWAS-MR found that genetically-proxied TYK2 inhibition was associated with lower risk of a wide range of autoimmune diseases. The associations with hypothyroidism and psoriasis were confirmed in MR analysis of tissue-specific TYK2 gene expression and the associations with systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis were observed in colocalization analysis. There were nominal associations of genetically-proxied TYK2 inhibition with increased risk of prostate and breast cancer but not in tissue-specific expression MR or colocalization analyses. Thirty-seven blood biomarkers were associated with the TYK2 loss-of-function mutation. Evidence from RCTs confirmed the effectiveness of TYK2 inhibitors on plaque psoriasis and reported several adverse effects.
This study supports TYK2 inhibitor as a potential treatment for psoriasis and several other autoimmune diseases. Increased pharmacovigilance is warranted in relation to the potential adverse effects.

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