The purpose of this systematic review was to assess how messaging for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to prevent different health outcomes (sexually transmitted infection, anogenital warts ([AGW], and/or cancer) influences intentions or initiation for the vaccine series.
We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase databases for all previously published articles with an evaluation, discussion, or comparison of messages containing content about HPV infections, AGW, precancers, or cancer through June 3, 2021. Results about messages were summarized by study population and design.
We identified 25 studies evaluating or comparing messages containing content about HPV-associated outcomes. Study designs included randomized trials (n = 12), cross-sectional surveys (n = 8), and qualitative approaches (n = 5). Few studies directly compared different messages using randomized designs or included vaccination uptake as the outcome. While many studies found support for cancer prevention messages, some studies also found equal or greater support for messages focusing on prevention of sexually transmitted infection/AGW. Variability was observed within and between studied populations (parents/adults, adolescents, young adults, healthcare providers, and adult males) and gender (male and female adolescents).
A greater understanding and deeper attention to myriad health outcomes of HPV infections could increase vaccination uptake in a variety of populations for health promotion across the lifespan.

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