The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare short- and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing mitral annuloplasty (MA) with or without papillary muscle surgery (PMS) for the treatment of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR).
A systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement were performed.
Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. This meta-analysis identified 478 patients: 228 patients underwent MA alone and 250 patients underwent concomitant PMS. Early mortality was similar between two groups (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-2.53; P = .75). PMS was associated at follow-up with a higher freedom from cardiac-related events (P = .050); moreover, although both surgical techniques had a positive impact on ventricular remodeling, the PMS group showed a significant higher reduction of left ventricle end-diastolic diameter (OR, 4.89, 95% CI, 2.77-7.01; P < .001) and left ventricle end-systolic diameter values (OR, 4.11, 95% CI, 1.98-6.24; P < .001). Finally, PMS compared with MA alone was associated with a significant reduction of recurrent mitral regurgitation at follow-up (OR, 3.25, 95% CI, 1.60-6.59; P = .001).
This meta-analysis demonstrated superiority in terms of ventricular remodeling of a combined approach encompassing PMS and MA over MA alone in IMR. Moreover, the association of subvalvular surgery with restrictive MA decreases the incidence of mitral regurgitation recurrence and cardiac-related events at follow-up.

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