Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-related autoimmune encephalitis (AE) has been rarely reported; however, there are no reports on mGluR5-related AE with reversible splenial lesion syndrome following vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
A 29-year-old man was admitted with a history of headache and fever for 9 days and 6 days, respectively.
He was initially diagnosed with an intracranial infection, however the final diagnosis was corrected as anti-mGluR5-related AE with reversible splenial lesion syndrome.
He had received an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine 3 weeks prior to the examination and was initially diagnosed with an intracranial infection. Physical examination revealed bilateral horizontal nystagmus, ataxia, and neck rigidity. Antiinfective therapy was minimally helpful. An analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid did not reveal pathogens for sequencing. Magnetic resonance imaging displayed abnormal signals in the splenium of the corpus callosum.
We identified mGluR5 antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Subsequently, intravenous methylprednisolone pulse and gamma-globulin pulse therapies were administered, which substantially improved the symptoms. Follow-up did not reveal abnormal neurological symptoms, and the lesion in the corpus callosum had resolved.
AE with mGluR5 antibodies could arise from SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, which warrants the awareness of healthcare workers. Reversible splenial lesion syndrome may accompany mGluR5-related AE and mimic intracranial infection. Thus, early treatment can prevent serious residual signs and symptoms.

Copyright © 2023 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.