Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increases the risk of pregnancy complications. Previous studies have indicated that metformin could be a potential treatment to mitigate the risk of pregnancy complications in women with PCOS. This study aims to examine the efficacy of metformin in preventing miscarriage and preterm birth in women with PCOS.
This randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial included a total of 487 singleton pregnant women aged 18-45 with confirmed PCOS. The women were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive metformin (n=244) or placebo (n=243). The primary outcome of the study was the composite incidence of pregnancy complications, including miscarriage and preterm birth. Secondary outcomes included preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Pregnancy complications occurred in 5% of women in the metformin group, as compared with 10% of women in the placebo group. No significant difference in secondary outcomes was reported between the two groups. No treatment-related adverse events occurred in the metformin group.
The research concluded that metformin treatment could reduce the risk of pregnancy complications, like miscarriage and preterm birth in women with PCOS. The studies also suggested that metformin was not associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and pregnancy-induced hypertension.