This study evaluated the adequacy of micronutrient intake from the ketogenic diet (KD) with and without micronutrient supplementation according to age in Brazilian children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy undergoing KD treatment.
This study enrolled children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy who were up to 19 y of age. Nutrient intakes were monitored using 3 d food records before introducing micronutrient supplementation and 3 mo after starting KD treatment. The prevalence of micronutrient inadequacy was estimated by sex and age according to the estimated average requirement cutoff values.
This study included 39 children and adolescents. The KD did not provide enough content of folate, calcium, and magnesium in all patients according to the dietary reference intake. Even after starting supplementation, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium intake remained inadequate in the majority of patients. The supplementation effectively met the vitamin B recommendation in all age groups.
KD treatment did not provide adequate levels of the monitored micronutrients. The supplementation improved but did not prevent the inadequacy of micronutrients such as calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. The results highlight the importance of individual supplementation protocols and the need to monitor micronutrient intake according to age and sex.