Valve repair for aortic insufficiency (AI) requires a tailored surgical approach determined by the leaflet and aortic disease. In this study, we used a repair-oriented system for the classification of AI, and we elucidated long-term outcomes of aortic root reimplantation with this classification system.
From 1999 to 2018, a total of 197 patients underwent elective reimplantation (mean age: 52.7 ± 17.7 years; 80% male). The aortic valve was tricuspid in 143 patients, bicuspid in 51 patients and quadricuspid in 3 patients. A total of 93 patients had type I AI (aortic dilatation), 57 patients had type II AI (cusp prolapse) and 47 patients had type III AI (restrictive). In total, 104 of the 264 patients (39%) had more than 1 identified mechanism.
In-hospital mortality was 0.5% (1/197). Mid-term follow-up (mean follow-up duration: 5.5 years) revealed a late mortality rate of 4.2% (9/197). Aortic valve reoperation was performed on 16 patients (8.0%). Rates of freedom from aortic valve replacement and freedom from aortic valve-related events at 10 years of follow-up were 87.0 ± 4.0% and 60.6 ± 6.0%, respectively; patients with type Ib AI (98.3 ± 1.7%; 80.7 ± 7.5%) had better outcomes than patients with type III AI (59.6 ± 15.6%; 42.2 ± 13.1%, P = 0.01). In patients with types II and III AI who had bicuspid aortic valves, rates of freedom from aortic valve-related events at 5 years of follow-up were 95.2 ± 4.7% and 71.7 ± 9.1%, respectively (P = 0.03).
This repair-oriented system for classifying AI could help to predict the durable aortic valve repair techniques. Patient selection according to the classification is particularly important for long-term durability.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.