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MIF family cytokines in cardiovascular diseases and prospects for precision-based therapeutics.

MIF family cytokines in cardiovascular diseases and prospects for precision-based therapeutics.
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Tilstam PV, Qi D, Leng L, Young L, Bucala R,


Tilstam PV, Qi D, Leng L, Young L, Bucala R, (click to view)

Tilstam PV, Qi D, Leng L, Young L, Bucala R,

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Expert opinion on therapeutic targets 21(7) 671-683 doi 10.1080/14728222.2017.1336227
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with chemokine-like functions that increasingly is being studied in different aspects of cardiovascular disease. MIF was first identified as a proinflammatory and pro-survival mediator within the immune system, and a second structurally related MIF family member, D-dopachrome tautomerase (a.k.a. MIF-2), was reported recently. Both MIF family members are released by myocardium and modulate the manifestations of cardiovascular disease, specifically in myocardial ischemia. Areas covered: A scientific overview is provided for the involvement of MIF family cytokines in the inflammatory pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. We summarize findings of experimental, human genetic and clinical studies, and suggest therapeutic opportunities for modulating the activity of MIF family proteins that potentially may be applied in a MIF allele specific manner. Expert opinion: Knowledge of MIF, MIF-2 and their receptor pathways are under active investigation in different types of cardiovascular diseases, and novel therapeutic opportunities are being identified. Clinical translation may be accelerated by accruing experience with MIF-directed therapies currently in human testing in cancer and autoimmunity.

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