Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces both motor and sensory dysfunctions. We wondered whether miR-30b could promote primary sensory neuron (PSN) axon growth in inhibitory microenvironment. The neurite growth was promoted by miR-30b agomir and inhibited by antagomir. MiR-30b targeted and degraded sema3A mRNA. MiR-30b regulated the formation of sema3A-NRP-1-PlexinA1 complex via targeting sema3A. The neurite length was induced by the miR-30b agomir, and the application of sema3A protein could reverse the effect of agomir. GTP-RhoA and ROCK expression were down-regulated by miR-30b. Neurite outgrowth that inhibited by sema3A and the miR-30b antagomir was increased by Y-27632. Agomir promoted neurite growth in NogoA inhibitory conditions, which indicated miR-30b could both enhance neuronal intrinsic regenerative ability and promote neurite growth against inhibitory microenvironment via Sema3A/NRP-1/PlexinA1/RhoA/ROCK axis. The agomir could also regulate Sema3A/NRP-1/PlexinA1/RhoA/ROCK axis in vivo and restore spinal cord sensory conductive function. In conclusion, miR-30b could be a novel target for sensation recovery after SCI.© 2020 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.