Predicting the therapeutic response to ocular hypotensive drugs is crucial for the clinical treatment and management of glaucoma. Our aim was to identify a possible genetic contribution to the response to current pharmacological treatments of choice in a white Mediterranean population with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OH). We conducted a prospective, controlled, randomized, partial crossover study that included 151 patients of both genders, aged 18 years and older, diagnosed with and requiring pharmacological treatment for POAG or OH in one or both eyes. We sought to identify copy number variants (CNVs) associated with differences in pharmacological response, using a DNA pooling strategy of carefully phenotyped treatment responders and non-responders, treated for a minimum of 6 weeks with a beta-blocker (timolol maleate) and/or prostaglandin analog (latanoprost). Diurnal intraocular pressure reduction and comparative genome wide CNVs were analyzed. Our finding that copy number alleles of an intronic portion of the MLIP gene is a predictor of pharmacological response to beta blockers and prostaglandin analogs could be used as a biomarker to guide first-tier POAG and OH treatment. Our finding improves understanding of the genetic factors modulating pharmacological response in POAG and OH, and represents an important contribution to the establishment of a personalized approach to the treatment of glaucoma.