Archives of sexual behavior 2017 04 27() doi 10.1007/s10508-017-0966-9
As in other parts of sub-Saharan Africa, youth in Kenya report low rates of condom use. Although several studies have explored reasons for the low condom use among Kenyan youth, not many have established linkages between lack of use and normative beliefs and attitudes around condoms. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this article examined whether beliefs and attitudes around condoms influenced intentions and actual condom use. Data for the study were restricted to 1453 sexually active youth during the last school break. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship between the TPB constructs and condom use among Kenyan youth. Results indicated a direct relationship between attitudes and condom use for male respondents and an indirect relationship between these two variables for females. Both males and females who expressed greater intentions to use condoms were significantly more likely to report they used condoms consistently. Also, male and female youth with higher perceived behavioral control were significantly more likely to have used condoms consistently. Males with friends who used condoms were significantly more likely to use condoms consistently. The findings suggest the importance of examining young people’s attitudes toward condoms-in particular, those deeply rooted in misconceptions that serve to discourage safer sexual behaviors.