The eyelids are a delicate and complex dynamic structure with primary function to protect the eye surface. The term «meibomian gland dysfunction» (MGD) first appeared in the mid-1980s. This lesion is known to result in a disturbance of the tear film, eye irritation symptoms, clinically significant inflammation and diseases of the eye surface. The progression of MGD leads to hyperosmolarity of the tear film, its instability, an increase in the bacterial load of the eyelid margin, blepharitis and generalized inflammation of the ocular surface. For patients who require surgical treatment, a healthy eyelid is very important. Despite postoperative functional recovery, most of these patients experience dry eye syndrome (DES), which can lead to symptoms of eye irritation and deterioration of visual acuity due to instability of the tear film. In the early stages of MGD, it is advisable to begin treatment with a conversation about correct frequent blinking, rest during visual activity, adequate water intake, and a specific diet. Later, patients are advised to use an ultrasonic air humidifier, warm dry compresses, practice proper eyelid hygiene and perform massages, apply preservative-free lubricants, azithromycin, omega-3 preparations, and undergo local anti-inflammatory therapy. In case of a tick-borne infestation, the International Expert Group recommends the use of scrubs with 50% tea tree oil for treating the eyelids. In order to achieve a long-term effect or permanent remission, it is necessary to practice daily eyelid hygiene with the help of gels, special napkins and shampoos over a long period of time. Correctly selected medical treatment in accordance with the stage of the disease supplemented with massages and warm dry compresses lead to a significant improvement in the quality of life of patients with MGD and DES. The simplicity of eyelid hygiene is currently ensured by the availability of tools specially designed for the safe treatment of its edges, which have a complex histological and anatomical structure.
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