Absolute monocytosis, one or more lineage dysplasia, and proliferative features including myeloid hyperplasia, splenomegaly, and constitutional symptoms portray a hematologic malignancy called chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). The risk-adapted treatment plan utilizes risk stratification, owing to the enormous clinical heterogeneity in both presentation and course. There are several prognostic scoring systems, where some of which contain mutational information. Hydroxyurea for cytoreduction, hypomethylating agents, and the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib are some of the therapies used to address splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms. Lately, a convenient treatment option for CMML patients was represented by the oral decitabine with cedazuridine after it was approved. Even though novel therapeutics are burgeoning for CMML, more research is required to reveal the probable targets that are exclusive to CMML. The researchers presented the pathophysiology, risk stratification, available treatment modalities, and novel therapies for CMML in a study. Furthermore, they also offered a contemporary treatment algorithm.
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