PloS one 2017 12 0712(12) e0188944 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0188944
The natural history and treatment outcome of hepatitis B viruses (HBV) infection is largely dependent on genotype, subgenotype, and the presence or absence of virulence associated mutations. We have studied the prevalence of genotype and subgenotype as well as virulence and drug resistance associated mutations and prevalence of recombinant among HBV from Bangladesh. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among treatment naïve chronic HBV patients attending at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh for HBV viral load assessment between June and August 2015. Systematical selected 50% of HBV DNA positive patients (every second patient) were enrolled. Biochemical and serological markers for HBV infection and whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on virus positive sample. Genotype, subgenotype, virulence, nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) resistance (NAr) mutations, and the prevalence of recombinant isolates were determined. Among 114 HBV DNA positive patients, 57 were enrolled in the study and 53 HBV WGS were generated for downstream analysis. Overall, 38% (22/57) and 62% (35/57) of patients had acute and chronic HBV infections, respectively. The prevalence of genotypes A, C, and D was 18.9% (10/53), 45.3% (24/53), and 35.8% (19/53), respectively. Among genotype A, C and D isolates subgenotype A1 (90%; 9/10), C1 (87.5%; 21/24) and D2 (78.9%; 15/19) predominates. The acute infection, virulence associated mutations, and viral load was higher in the genotype D isolates. Evidence of recombination was identified in 22.6% (12/53) of the HBV isolates including 20.0% (2/10), and 16.7% (4/24) and 31.6% (6/19) of genotype A, C and D isolates, respectively. The prevalence of recombination was higher in chronic HVB patients (32.2%; 10/31 versus 9.1%; 2/22); p<0.05. NAr mutations were identified in 47.2% (25/53) of the isolates including 33.9% novel mutations (18/53). HBV genotype C and D predominated in this population in Bangladesh; a comparatively high prevalence of recombinant HBV are circulating in this setting.