Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2017 12 13() doi 10.1093/trstmh/trx070
With the transformation of HIV infection from an acutely life-threatening disease into a chronic condition (as a consequence of the development of effective antiretroviral medication), the perceived clinical importance of diagnosing and treating microsporidian infections diminished, at least in industrialized countries. In locales where effective antiretroviral therapy is not available, as well as in patients with immunodeficiency for reasons other than HIV infection (e.g., following organ transplantation), and in individuals with suspected ocular microsporidiosis, diagnosing microsporidian infections remains a clinical priority. Molecular techniques can readily distinguish different species of microsporidia. At least one molecular diagnostic platform that can detect the intestinal parasites Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi is commercially available.