Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia and may involve Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Twenty-one LLD patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, criteria for a current major depressive episode and 21 healthy controls underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessments, magnetic resonance imaging to measure gray matter volumes, and high-resolution positron emission tomography to measure beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. Clinical and neuropsychological assessments were repeated after 10-12 weeks of Citalopram or Sertraline treatment (LLD patients only). LLD patients did not differ from healthy controls in baseline neuropsychological function, although patients improved in both depressive symptoms and visual-spatial memory during treatment. Greater Aβ in the left parietal cortex was observed in LLD patients compared with controls. Greater Aβ was correlated with greater depressive symptoms and poorer visual-spatial memory, but not with improvement with treatment. The study of LLD patients with prospective measurements of mood and cognitive responses to antidepressant treatment is an opportunity to understand early neurobiological mechanisms underlying the association between depression and subsequent cognitive decline.