Our aims were to improve the understanding of the pathogenic relationship between cardiovascular diseases and periodontitis and to generate new perspectives in the prevention and treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and periodontitis. The present study evaluates possible differences in inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy markers among subject suffering AMI, periodontitis, or both, to explore possible common pathogenic mechanisms.
A total of 260 subjects were enrolled in the study: 106 subjects that survived to a first AMI (AMI group) and 154 subjects had no cardiac events in their clinical record (control group). A questionnaire was used to assess age, height, weight, blood pressure, and heart rate. The clinical probing depth, clinical attachment loss, number of remaining teeth, and average number of sites with bleeding on probing were assessed. Lipid peroxidation and protein levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B-light chain 3-II (LC3-II) were determined in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay and Western blot, respectively. Plasma levels of interleukin-1β were determined using a commercial ELISA kit. All the obtained variables were compared between subjects suffering an AMI with or without periodontitis and control subject periodontal healthy or with periodontitis.
A higher proportion of subjects suffering AMI + periodontitis than only AMI (without periodontitis) was found. Higher levels of TBARS were found in subjects with periodontitis than in subjects without periodontitis in both AMI and control subjects. Positive correlations between IL-1β levels and TBARS and between IL-1β levels and LC3-II were found only in control subjects.
Results from the present study are consistent with the suggestion of periodontitis as a potential risk factor for AMI. Periodontitis association with circulating lipid peroxides in both AMI and control subjects were found. The absence of differences in IL-1β levels between AMI subjects (only AMI vs AMI + periodontitis) suggests that oxidative stress could be the main pathogenic link between AMI and periodontitis.

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