Objective To observe the effect of Mongolian medicine Zhenbao Pill (Eridon Uril, EU) on inflammation and apoptosis of HT22 mouse hippocampal neurons cells under oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), and to explore its potential mechanism. Methods Three-gas incubator and sugar-free anaerobic medium were used to construct a model of OGD/R-injured HT22 cells. OGD/R model cells were treated with EU (10, 20 and 40 μg/mL), and the optimal dose of 20 μg/mL was screened. The OGD/R injured cells treated with nicotinamide (NAM), inhibitor of SIRT1, combined with EU were set as EU combined with NAM group, and the OGD /R injured cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) combined with EU were set as EU combined with DMSO group. CCK-8 assay and ELISA were used to detect cell activity and LDH leakage rate, respectively. Detection of the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-1β was detected by real time fluorescence quantitative PCR in HT22 cells. The apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The protein expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), Bcl2 related X protein (BAX), SIRT1, inhibitor of nuclear factor κB α (IκBα), and phosphorylated nuclear factor κB (p-NF-κB) were detected by Western blot analysis. Results Compared to the control group, HT22 cells in the OGD/R group showed significantly lower activity and higher LDH leakage rate, while (20, 40)μg/mL EU treatment significantly increased cell activity and lowered LDH leakage rate, with 20 μg/mL EU being the optimal dose. The mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β and the apoptosis rate of the cells in the OGD/R group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The protein levels of SIRT1, IκBα, and Bcl2 were significantly lower than that in the control group, while the protein levels of p-NF-κB, BAX were significantly higher than that in the control group. EU significantly inhibited the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and apoptosis in HT22 cells induced by OGD/R. Conclusion EU significantly reduces the inflammatory response and apoptosis in OGD/R-induced mouse hippocampal neurons, which is associated with the activation of SIRT1/NF-κB signal pathway.