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Monocyte-derived exosomes upon exposure to cigarette smoke condensate alter their characteristics and show protective effect against cytotoxicity and HIV-1 replication.

Monocyte-derived exosomes upon exposure to cigarette smoke condensate alter their characteristics and show protective effect against cytotoxicity and HIV-1 replication.
Author Information (click to view)

Haque S, Sinha N, Ranjit S, Midde NM, Kashanchi F, Kumar S,


Haque S, Sinha N, Ranjit S, Midde NM, Kashanchi F, Kumar S, (click to view)

Haque S, Sinha N, Ranjit S, Midde NM, Kashanchi F, Kumar S,

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Scientific reports 2017 11 237(1) 16120 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-16301-9

Abstract

Smoking is known to exacerbate HIV-1 pathogenesis, especially in monocytes, through the oxidative stress pathway. Exosomes are known to alter HIV-1 pathogenesis through inter-cellular communication. However, the role of exosomes in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on the characteristics of monocyte-derived exosomes and their influence on HIV-1 replication. Initially, we demonstrated that CSC reduced total protein and antioxidant capacity in exosomes derived from HIV-1-infected and uninfected macrophages. The exosomes from CSC-treated uninfected cells showed a protective effect against cytotoxicity and viral replication in HIV-1-infected macrophages. However, exosomes derived from HIV-1-infected cells lost their protective capacity. The results suggest that the exosomal defense is likely to be more effective during the early phase of HIV-1 infection and diminishes at the latter phase. Furthermore, we showed CSC-mediated upregulation of catalase in exosomes from uninfected cells, with a decrease in the levels of catalase and PRDX6 in exosomes derived from HIV-1-infected cells. These results suggest a potential role of antioxidant enzymes, which are differentially packaged into CSC-exposed HIV-1-infected and uninfected cell-derived exosomes, on HIV-1 replication of recipient cells. Overall, our study suggests a novel role of exosomes in tobacco-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis.

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