Scientific reports 2017 11 077(1) 14657 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-15027-y
Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) suffer from recurrent upper and lower airway infections due to defects in the cilia present on the respiratory epithelium. Since chronic inflammatory conditions can cause changes in innate immune responses, we investigated whether monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of pediatric PCD patients respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, compared to monocytes from healthy children and adults. The receptor for C5a (C5aR) was upregulated in PCD, whereas expression levels of the leukocyte chemoattractant receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, BLT1 and FPR1 on PCD monocytes were similar to those on monocytes from healthy individuals. Also in vitro migration of PCD monocytes towards the ligands of those receptors (CCL2, fMLP, C5a and LTB4) was normal. Compared to healthy children, PCD patients had a higher percentage of the non-classic monocyte subset (CD14+CD16++) in circulation. Finally, PCD monocytes produced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and chemokines (CCL3, CCL5, CCL18 and CCL22) in response to LPS, peptidoglycan and/or dsRNA stimulation. These data suggest that monocytes might exacerbate inflammatory reactions in PCD patients and might maintain a positive feedback-loop feeding the inflammatory process.