Journal of autoimmunity 2017 09 2186() 116-119 pii 10.1016/j.jaut.2017.09.003
Risk of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is strongly heritable. Multiple genes confer increased risk for AITD, but a monogenic origin has not yet been described. We studied a family with apparent autosomal dominant, early onset Hashimoto thyroiditis.
The family was enrolled in an IRB-approved protocol. Whole exome sequencing was used to study the proband and an affected sibling. The identified variant was studied in other family members by Sanger sequencing.
We identified a previously unreported splice site variant in the thyroglobulin gene (TG c.1076-1G > C). This variant was confirmed in all affected family members who underwent testing, and also noted in one unaffected child. The variant is associated with exon 9 skipping, resulting in a novel in-frame variant transcript of TG.
We discovered a monogenic form of AITD associated with a splice site variant in the thyroglobulin gene. This finding raises questions about the origins of thyroid autoimmunity; possible explanations include increased immunogenicity of the mutated protein or thyroid toxicity with secondary development of anti-thyroid antibodies. Further study into the effects of this variant on thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity are warranted.