The following is a summary of “Risk factors associated with mortality in hospitalized patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during the period of omicron (B.1.1.529) variant predominance,” published in the June 2023 issue of the Infection Control by Ashley et al.
The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has a high transmission rate. In December 2021, Omicron surpassed all other variants and rapidly accounted for most infections in the United States. Due to drug shortages, COVID-19 treatment has been prioritized based on risk factors for severe disease. A retrospective analysis of COVID-19-infected hospitalized patients within the Veteran Affairs Healthcare System in the United States.
The primary outcome was 14-day all-cause mortality following the first documented positive laboratory test for SARS-CoV-2. Multivariate logistic regression of significant factors produced odds ratios. This analysis involved 12,936 COVID-19 inpatients during an Omicron-predominant period. Age ≥65 predicts 14-day mortality in both vaccinated and unvaccinated populations (OR 4.05, CI 3.06-5.45, P≤ .0001). Triple-vaccinated patients had a 52% reduction in mortality risk from COVID-19 infection (OR 0.48, CI 0.37-0.61, P≤ .0001).
Patients who received two doses of vaccination had a 39% reduced risk of death from COVID-19 infection (OR 0.61, CI 0.44 to 0.80, P =.003). The most significant risk factor for mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients is advanced age 65. Vaccination against COVID-19, particularly supplemental doses, was associated with a lower risk of 14-day mortality than double vaccination or non-vaccination. The findings of this study suggest that older patients should be given priority for COVID-19 treatments for Omicron.