The aim of this study is to understand The majority of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus develop lupus nephritis (LN) which significantly contributes to increased risks of hospitalizations, ESRD, and death. Unfortunately, treatments for LN have not changed over the past 15 years. Despite continued efforts to elucidate the pathogenesis of LN, no new drugs have yet replaced the standard-of-care regimens of cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil plus high-dose corticosteroids. The significant limitations of standard-of-care are low complete response rates, risk of flares, and ongoing inflammation in the kidney leading to progressive renal dysfunction. Repeat and prolonged treatments are often needed to control disease, leading to a high level of severe side effects. The development of targeted drugs with better efficacy and safety is desperately needed. The rationale for targeting key immunologic pathways in LN continues to be strongly supported by basic and translational research and has generated the hope and excitement of testing these therapies in human LN.