Clinical radiology 2017 03 0772(7) 612.e7-612.e15 pii S0009-9260(17)30062-4
To outline the anatomical variations of obstructive reproductive tract anomalies (ORTA) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its role in preoperative evaluation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
MRI and treatment of 21 paediatric patients with ORTA were reviewed and analysed. MRI findings were correlated with ultrasound and surgical findings.
Patients presented in two distinct ways: primary amenorrhoea with cyclic pelvic pain, or progressive dysmenorrhoea. MRI showed haematocolpos, haematocervix, haematometra, and/or haematosalpinx; it also provided detailed information regarding uterine morphology, ipsilateral kidney absence, and endometriosis. Diagnosis at MRI of the obstruction sites correlated completely (100%) with the surgical diagnosis. Obstruction occurred at different levels of the genital tract, and surgical treatment was given based on the obstruction sites. One patient underwent excision of the hymen tissue for imperforate hymen. Four cases of lower vaginal atresia were treated with vaginoplasty. Three patients with typical Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome underwent resection of the vaginal septum, and one patient with concurrent post-partum placenta increta was treated accordingly; one patient with atypical HWW syndrome had the left uterus resected. There were 11 cases of cervical agenesis or cervicovaginal dysgenesis, eight of which were complicated with uterine anomalies, and in all cases the uterus was removed. Among the 10 obstructive cervical anomalies, there were three cases of cervical agenesis and seven cases of cervical dysgenesis, including five obliterated cervical os (cervical obstruction), one cervical fibrous cord, and one cervical fragmentation.
ORTA can occur from the hymen to the lower segment of the uterus and requires surgical intervention. The preoperative evaluation is vital to guide proper surgery. MRI, with its imaging advantages, is the imaging technique of choice to assess the obstructed sites and complicated anomalies of ORTA.