International journal of dermatology 2017 09 27() doi 10.1111/ijd.13737
Mucocutaneous manifestations are one of the first clinical signs in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous study describing dermatologic manifestations in Mauritanians infected with HIV. The aim of the present study was to determine the profiles of mucocutaneous manifestations in relation to CD4 T cell count in HIV-positive Mauritanian patients.
A total of 86 adult patients aged > 18 years old attending the Ambulatory Treatment Center of the National Hospital of Nouakchott, Mauritania, with newly diagnosed HIV and who were not under antiretroviral treatment were included in the study in 2015. Dermatologic manifestations were documented before initiating antiretroviral treatment.
Most of the included patients were in clinical stage 3 of the World Health Organization classification at initial diagnosis, with the mean CD4 T cell count (± SD) of 514 ± 319 cells/mm(3) (range, 2-1328 cells/mm(3) ), and 19 of 86 (22.1%) patients had CD4 T cell counts below 200 cells/mm(3) . More than half (64%) of newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients had dermatoses, including the following: pruritic papular eruption (44.2%), seborrheic dermatitis (4.7%), Kaposi’s sarcoma (3.5%), extensive xerosis cutis (2.3%), drug-induced skin reactions (1.2%), and various infectious dermatoses (dermatophyte infections [16.3%], oral candidiasis [11.6%], herpes zoster [8.1%], and scabies [2.3%]). A low CD4 T cell count (< 200 cells/mm(3) ) was significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with the presence of following dermatoses: dermatophytosis, oral candidiasis, Kaposi's sarcoma, seborrheic dermatitis, and extensive xerosis cutis. CONCLUSION
Mucocutaneous lesions occur throughout the course of HIV infection, and dermatologic findings in Mauritanian HIV-positive patients are similar to those of patients in other countries. Early detection of skin disorders in some patients may help establish the diagnosis of HIV and management of HIV-associated diseases, limiting the cost of care in low-resource countries.