Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a group of disorders caused by the reduced or absent activity of enzymes involved in the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) degradation; the consequence is the progressive accumulation of the substrate (dermatan, heparan, keratan or chondroitin sulfate) in the lysosomes of cells belonging to several tissues. The rarity, the broad spectrum of manifestations, the lack of strict genotype-phenotype association, and the progressive nature of MPS make diagnosing this group of conditions challenging. Musculoskeletal involvement represents a common and prominent feature of MPS. Joint and bone abnormalities might be the main clue for diagnosing MPS, especially in attenuated phenotypes; therefore, it is essential to increase the awareness of these conditions among the pediatric rheumatology and orthopedic communities since early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to reduce the disease burden of these patients. Nowadays, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are available for some MPS types. We describe the musculoskeletal characteristics of MPS patients through a literature review of MPS cases misdiagnosed as having rheumatologic or orthopedic conditions.