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Mucosal vaccination with pili from Group A Streptococcus expressed on Lactococcus lactis generates protective immune responses.

Mucosal vaccination with pili from Group A Streptococcus expressed on Lactococcus lactis generates protective immune responses.
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Loh JMS, Lorenz N, Tsai CJ, Khemlani AHJ, Proft T,


Loh JMS, Lorenz N, Tsai CJ, Khemlani AHJ, Proft T, (click to view)

Loh JMS, Lorenz N, Tsai CJ, Khemlani AHJ, Proft T,

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Scientific reports 2017 08 037(1) 7174 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-07602-0
Abstract

The human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS) produces pili that are involved in adhesion and colonisation of the host. These surface-exposed pili are immunogenic and therefore represent an attractive target for vaccine development. The pilus is encoded in the genomic region known as the fibronectin-collagen-T-antigen (FCT)-region, of which at least nine different types have been identified. In this study we investigate expressing two of the most common FCT-types (FCT-3 and FCT-4) in the food-grade bacteria Lactococcus lactis for use as a mucosal vaccine. We show that mucosally delivered L. lactis expressing GAS pili generates specific antibody responses in rabbits. Rabbit anti-pilus antibodies were shown to have both a neutralising effect on bacterial adhesion, and immunised rabbit antiserum was able to facilitate immune-mediated killing of bacteria via opsonophagocytosis. Furthermore, intranasal immunisation of mice improved clearance rates of GAS after nasopharyngeal challenge. These results demonstrate the potential for a novel, pilus-based vaccine to protect against GAS infections.

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