Aquatic ecosystem health is the main concern to increasing pesticides application to control agricultural pests as it is the ultimate receptor of such materials. This study evaluated the impact of new metal-insecticide, the [Mg(hesp)(phen)], referred as MgHP, on fish using physiological, genetic, biochemical, and morphological biomarkers. The fish, Prochilodus lineatus, was exposed to 0 (control), 1, 10, 100, 1000 μg L MgHP, for 24 and 96 h. MgHP was not lethal but caused genotoxicity, altered hematological variables and, the activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes and histology of liver, depending on concentration and time exposure. Hematocrit and erythrocyte number (RBC) increased without change hemoglobin content resulting in changes in hematimetric indexes after 24 h; after 96 h, only RBC was changed. Erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities and crenate cells increased after 24 h but, not after 96 h. Erythrocytes and hepatocytes indicated instability in DNA integrity however, the absence of micronuclei suggested DNA damage repairment. After 24 h, the antioxidant defense system and the phase II biotransformation enzyme was responsiveness and catalase activity decreased at high MgHP concentrations; the antioxidant response was triggered after 96 h. Hepatocyte hypertrophy, intracellular cytoplasmic substances, cytoplasm degeneration, melanomacrophage and hyperemia increased in fish exposed from 10 μg L to higher MgHP concentrations; the organ alteration index increased as MgHP concentration increased showing dose-dependence. Most of hematological and genotoxic effects occurred after 24 h exposure evidencing potential recover capability of organism by activation of the antioxidant defense system and DNA repairment mechanisms. Nevertheless, the histopathological changes in the liver was maintained over time at high MgHP concentrations, a concentration usually no environmental relevant. In conclusion, this data reinforced the importance of continuing research on MgHP effects in other organisms considering the promising use of such compound to control the leaf-cutter ants and other insects.
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