Multi-phasic Ga-PSMA PET/CT in detection of early recurrence in prostate cancer patients with PSA < 1 ng/ml: a prospective study of 135 cases.
The main objective of this prospective study was to determine the impact of multi-phasic acquisition of Ga-PSMA PET/CT in the detection of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) in the early stage of biochemical recurrence (BR) with prostate-serum-antigen (PSA) level <1ng/ml. Also, Ga-PSMA PET/CT positivity was correlated with clinical parameters for the assessment of predictive markers. A prospective monocentric study was conducted on 135 PCa patients with BR and PSA<1ng/ml. All patients have undergone initial prostatectomy with additional radiation therapy in 19.3% and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in 7.4% of patients. Dynamic acquisition [1-8min. post-injection (p.i.)] from the prostate bed, standard whole-body (60min. p.i.) and limited bed positions of delayed studies (120-150min. p.i.), were performed. Studies were reviewed by two board-certified nuclear medicine specialists, independently. A combination of visual and semi-quantitative analyses and correlation with morphological (e.g. MRI) and/or clinical follow-up findings was used for the final interpretation of abnormal lesions as benign or malignant. Ga-PSMA PET/CT positivity was also correlated with primary clinical findings. Incorporating the information of all phases, 116 lesions were detected in 49.6% of patients (22 local recurrences, 63 lymph nodes, and 31 distant metastases). The detection rates were 31.8%, 44.9%, and 71.4% for PSA<0.2ng/ml, 0.2≤PSA<0.5, and 0.5≤PSA<1, respectively. Additional dynamic and/or delayed phases resulted in better determination of equivocal lesions and a higher diagnostic performance in 25.9% of patients. Stand-alone dynamic and delayed images led to better interpretation of equivocal findings in the prostate bed (31.4%) and other (lymph node/bone) lesions (20%), respectively. Ga-PSMA PET/CT revealed promising results for the early detection of recurrent disease in patients with PSA level of 0.5-1.0ng/ml. However, it showed limited value in cases with PSA<0.5ng/ml. Multi-phasic Ga-PSMA PET/CT led to better determination of equivocal findings. Although, dynamic images may provide helpful information in assessment of the prostate bed; however, delayed acquisitions seem to have higher impact in clarifying of the equivocal findings.Copyright © 2020 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.