Although M. pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infections have been associated with various extrapulmonary manifestations, there have been very few documented cases of thrombotic events in pediatrics, and none to our knowledge with such extensive involvement as the patient described here. We aim to contribute to the urgency of discovering the mechanism of the coagulopathy associated with M. pneumoniae infections.
This 10-year-old boy was admitted after 2 weeks of fever, sore throat, worsening cough, and progressive neck and back pain. During hospitalization, he developed clots in several different organs: bilateral pulmonary emboli, cardiac vegetations, multiple splenic infarcts, and deep venous thromboses in three of four extremities. He was treated with long-term antibiotics and anticoagulation, and fully recovered.
This is the first case known to us of a child with an extensive number of thrombotic events in multiple anatomic sites associated with M. pneumoniae infection. The mechanism by which M. pneumoniae infection is related to thrombotic events is not fully understood, but there is evidence that the interplay between the coagulation pathways and the complement cascade may be significant. This patient underwent extensive investigation, and was found to have significant coagulopathy, but minimal complement abnormalities. By better understanding the mechanisms involved in complications of M. pneumoniae infection, the clinician can more effectively investigate the progression of this disease saving time, money, morbidity, and mortality.

© 2021. The Author(s).