Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease associated with synovitis and cartilage destruction. Ultrasound (US)-driven sonodynamic therapy (SDT) possess a good application prospect in RA therapy because of its non-invasiveness and strong tissue penetration capabilities, which can kill activated synovial inflammatory cells. Nevertheless, the tiny accumulation of sonosensitizers in the joints and the hypoxic synovial microenvironment severely limit the therapeutic effect of SDT. Hence, we developed a sonosensitizer spafloxacin (SPX) doped and human serum albumin (HSA) loaded concave-cubic rhodium (Rh) nanozyme (Rh/SPX-HSA) to realize mutual-reinforcing SDT during ultrasonic activation. On the one hand, SPX would cause mitochondrial dysfunction by inducing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, thus suppressing fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) under US conditions. On the other hand, concave-cubic rhodium was utilized as a nanozyme with endogenous peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT)-like enzyme activities, which not only relieved the hypoxia of the joint to resist angiogenesis, but also enormously ascended the SDT efficacy by rising O levels. Interestingly, the activity of nanozymes was also improved by the ultrasonic cavitation effect, thereby realizing mutual-reinforcing SDT. Overall, our strategy provided Rh-based to achieve effective SDT under hypoxic microenvironment, which offered a promising prospect for highly efficient treatment of RA.Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
About The Expert