C57BL/6 mice with pristane-induced lupus develop macrophage-dependent diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), which is blocked by treatment with liver X receptor (LXR) agonists and is exacerbated by low IL-10 levels. Serp-1, a myxomavirus-encoded serpin that impairs macrophage activation and plasminogen activation, blocks DAH caused by MHV68 infection. We investigated whether Serp-1 also could block DAH in pristane-induced lupus. Pristane-induced DAH was prevented by treatment with recombinant Serp-1 and macrophages from Serp1-treated mice exhibited an anti-inflammatory M2-like phenotype. Therapy activated LXR, promoting M2 polarization and expression of Kruppel-like factor-4 (KLH4), which upregulates IL-10. In contrast, deficiency of tissue plasminogen activator or plasminogen activator inhibitor had little effect on DAH. We conclude that Serp-1 blocks pristane-induced lung hemorrhage by enhancing LXR-regulated M2 macrophage polarization and KLH4-regulated IL-10 production. In view of the similarities between DAH in pristane-treated mice and SLE patients, Serp-1 may represent a potential new therapy for this severe complication of SLE.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.