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N-(Pivaloyloxy)alkoxy-carbonyl Prodrugs of the Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON) as a Potential Treatment for HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.

N-(Pivaloyloxy)alkoxy-carbonyl Prodrugs of the Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON) as a Potential Treatment for HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.
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Nedelcovych MT, Tenora L, Kim BH, Kelschenbach J, Chao W, Hadas E, Jančařík A, Prchalová E, Zimmermann SC, Dash RP, Gadiano AJ, Garrett C, Furtmüller G, Oh B, Brandacher G, Alt J, Majer P, Volsky DJ, Rais R, Slusher BS,


Nedelcovych MT, Tenora L, Kim BH, Kelschenbach J, Chao W, Hadas E, Jančařík A, Prchalová E, Zimmermann SC, Dash RP, Gadiano AJ, Garrett C, Furtmüller G, Oh B, Brandacher G, Alt J, Majer P, Volsky DJ, Rais R, Slusher BS, (click to view)

Nedelcovych MT, Tenora L, Kim BH, Kelschenbach J, Chao W, Hadas E, Jančařík A, Prchalová E, Zimmermann SC, Dash RP, Gadiano AJ, Garrett C, Furtmüller G, Oh B, Brandacher G, Alt J, Majer P, Volsky DJ, Rais R, Slusher BS,

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Journal of medicinal chemistry 2017 08 1460(16) 7186-7198 doi 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00966

Abstract

Aberrant excitatory neurotransmission associated with overproduction of glutamate has been implicated in the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON, 14) attenuates glutamate synthesis in HIV-infected microglia/macrophages, offering therapeutic potential for HAND. We show that 14 prevents manifestation of spatial memory deficits in chimeric EcoHIV-infected mice, a model of HAND. 14 is not clinically available, however, because its development was hampered by peripheral toxicities. We describe the synthesis of several substituted N-(pivaloyloxy)alkoxy-carbonyl prodrugs of 14 designed to circulate inert in plasma and be taken up and biotransformed to 14 in the brain. The lead prodrug, isopropyl 6-diazo-5-oxo-2-(((phenyl(pivaloyloxy)methoxy)carbonyl)amino)hexanoate (13d), was stable in swine and human plasma but liberated 14 in swine brain homogenate. When dosed systemically in swine, 13d provided a 15-fold enhanced CSF-to-plasma ratio and a 9-fold enhanced brain-to-plasma ratio relative to 14, opening a possible clinical path for the treatment of HAND.

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