Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Long-term changes in the microenvironment of the brain contribute to the degeneration of neurological function following TBI. However, current research focuses primarily on short-term modulation during the early phases of TBI, not on the critical significance of long-term homeostasis in the brain microenvironment. Notably, dysfunction of the glymphatic-lymphatic system results in the accumulation of danger/damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the brain, which is regarded as the leading cause of long-term microenvironmental disturbances following TBI. Here, a nanostructure, Nano-plumber, that co-encapsulates the microenvironment regulator pro-DHA and the lymphatic-specific growth factor VEGF-C is developed, allowing for a sustainable and orderly regulation of the microenvironment to promote long-term neurological recovery. Nano-plumber reverses the injury microenvironment by suppressing microglia and astrocytes activation and maintaining reduced activation via enhanced glymphatic-lymphatic drainage, and significantly improves the neurological function of rodents with TBI. This study demonstrates that glymphatic-lymphatic system reconstruction is essential for enhancing long-term prognosis following TBI, and that the Nano-plumber developed here may serve as a clinically translatable treatment option for TBI.© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.