Expert review of molecular diagnostics 2017 03 20() doi 10.1080/14737159.2017.1308825
Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading killer worldwide. End TB strategy aims at ending the TB epidemic by 2030. Early, accurate, and affordable diagnosis represents a cornerstone to achieve this goal. Innovative strategies for TB diagnostics have been introduced, however the ideal assay is yet unavailable and conventional methods remain necessary for diagnosis. Unique properties of nanoparticles (NPs) have allowed their utilization in TB detection via targeting disease biomarkers. Area Covered Until now, around thirty-five TB NP-based assays have been partially or fully characterized. Accuracy, low-cost, and short time-to-result represent the common properties of proposed platforms. TB nanodiagnostics now encompass almost all clinical aspects of the disease including active TB, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, rifampicin resistant TB, TB/HIV co-infection, latent TB, and extra-pulmonary TB. This review summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge of TB nanodiagnostics for the last 10 years. Special consideration is given for fabrication concepts, detection strategies, and clinical performance using various clinical specimens. The potential of TB nanodiagnostics to fulfill the need for ideal MTB testing is assessed. Expert Commentary TB nanodiagnostics show promise to be ideal detection tools that can meet the rigorous demands to end the TB epidemic by 2030.