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Nanowire Aptasensors for Electrochemical Detection of Cell-Secreted Cytokines.

Nanowire Aptasensors for Electrochemical Detection of Cell-Secreted Cytokines.
Author Information (click to view)

Liu Y, Rahimian A, Krylyuk S, Vu T, Crulhas B, Stybayeva G, Imanbekova M, Shin DS, Davydov A, Revzin A,


Liu Y, Rahimian A, Krylyuk S, Vu T, Crulhas B, Stybayeva G, Imanbekova M, Shin DS, Davydov A, Revzin A, (click to view)

Liu Y, Rahimian A, Krylyuk S, Vu T, Crulhas B, Stybayeva G, Imanbekova M, Shin DS, Davydov A, Revzin A,

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ACS sensors 2017 10 092(11) 1644-1652 doi 10.1021/acssensors.7b00486

Abstract

Cytokines are small proteins secreted by immune cells in response to pathogens/infections; therefore, these proteins can be used in diagnosing infectious diseases. For example, release of a cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ from T-cells is used for blood-based diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Our lab has previously developed an atpamer-based electrochemical biosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of IFN-γ. In this study, we explored the use of silicon nanowires (NWs) as a way to create nanostructured electrodes with enhanced sensitivity for IFN-γ. Si NWs were covered with gold and were further functionalized with thiolated aptamers specific for IFN-γ. Aptamer molecules were designed to form a hairpin and in addition to terminal thiol groups contained redox reporter molecules methylene blue. Binding of analyte to aptamer-modified NWs (termed here nanowire aptasensors) inhibited electron transfer from redox reporters to the electrode and caused electrochemical redox signal to decrease. In a series of experiments we demonstrate that NW aptasensors responded 3× faster and were 2× more sensitive to IFN-γ compared to standard flat electrodes. Most significantly, NW aptasensors allowed detection of IFN-γ from as few as 150 T-cells/mL while ELISA did not pick up signal from the same number of cells. One of the challenges faced by ELISA-based TB diagnostics is poor performance in patients whose T-cell numbers are low, typically HIV patients. Therefore, NW aptasensors developed here may be used in the future for more sensitive monitoring of IFN-γ responses in patients coinfected with HIV/TB.

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