Migraine is a comorbidity of painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Both migraine and painful TMD have associations with neck pain and head posture. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of neck pain and head posture on the association between migraine and painful TMD in adolescents. In total 314 adolescents were included: 235 adolescents with only painful TMD (pTMD) and 79 adolescents with painful TMD and migraine (TMDMIG). Adolescents were diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders and International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. Head postures were identified using lateral cephalograms. Myofascial trigger points (TrPs) were evaluated in the temporalis, masseter, trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, sub-occipitalis, and splenius capitis muscles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed the associations among the orofacial pain duration, number of active TrPs in the trapezius muscles, intensity of neck pain, and distance between the occiput and atlas and migraine in adolescents with TMD. The relationships among intensity of neck pain, number of TrPs in the cervical muscles, and head posture were more prominent in the TMDMIG than those in the pTMD. Neck associated factors seemed to have relevance with migraine in adolescents with painful TMD.