We present the first report of needle tract seeding with simultaneous abscess associated with pancreatic fistula occurring after endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). A 72-year-old woman complained of fever 18 days after EUS-FNA for PDA of the pancreatic tail with a retention cyst. An abscess associated with pancreatic fistula containing necrotic debris formed in the EUS-FNA needle tract was successfully treated with endoscopic drainage and antibiotics. Distal pancreatectomy with partial gastrectomy was performed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Complete resection was achieved but peritoneal lavage cytology was positive for cancer. Pathology of the resected specimen revealed cancer cells invading the gastric submucosa at the EUS-FNA puncture site from the serosal side. The lining of the retention cyst was free of cancer cells. Liver metastases and peritoneal carcinomatosis were seen 3 months after surgery. While needle tract seeding has recently received attention as a complication of EUS-FNA, endoscopists should also be alerted to the possibility of abscess associated with pancreatic fistula after EUS-FNA for PDA.

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