To report two novel mutations in the BCKDHB gene with Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and compare their data with 52 cases of MSUD reported in the available Chinese literature.
Clinical data of a case of a newborn with MSUD was retrospectively studied. Literatures on MSUD in the local medical journals from January 1990 till December 2019 in China were reviewed.
Two novel BCKDHB mutations c.90_91insCTGGCGCGGGG (p.Phe35TrpfsTer41) and c.80_90del (p.Ala32PhefsTer48) were identified. We found a total of 52 cases of MSUD reports so far. A total of 49 cases had the symptom of poor feeding (94.2%), 50 cases showed poor responses to stimulation (96.2%), 21 cases had odor of maple syrup (40.3%), 29 cases had seizures (55.7%), and 13 cases had respiratory failure (25.0%). The average of the blood ammonia was 127.2 ± 75.0 μmol/L. A total of 18 cases reported the gene testing, among of them 9 cases of BCKDHA mutations, 6 cases of BCKDHB mutations, and 2 cases of DBT mutations. A total of 13 cases (25%) were treated with mechanical ventilation, 50 cases (96.2%) with protein-restricted diet and l-carnitine, 29 cases with thiamine, and only 2 cases were treated with blood purification. Finally, 19 patients (36.5%) were died, 21 cases (40.4%) were improved after treatments.
The clinical phenotype of neonatal MSUD in China belongs to the classical type currently. Suspected patients should have blood or urine branched-chain amino acid levels tested and brain MRI as early as possible to enable early diagnosis, thus improvement in prognosis.

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