Journal of the American Heart Association 2017 05 196(5) pii e005198
Netrin-1 (NTN-1) has been established to be a novel intrinsic regulator of blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintenance. This study was carried out to investigate the potential roles of exogenous NTN-1 in preserving BBB integrity after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as well as the underlying mechanisms of its protective effects.
METHODS AND RESULTS
A total of 309 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation model of SAH. Recombinant NTN-1 was administered intravenously 1 hour after SAH induction. NTN-1 small interfering RNA or Deleted in Colorectal Cancer small interfering RNA was administered intracerebroventricular at 48 hours before SAH. Focal adhesion kinase inhibitor was administered by intraperitoneal injection at 1 hour prior to SAH. Neurological scores, brain water content, BBB permeability, RhoA activity, Western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were evaluated. The expression of endogenous NTN-1 and its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer were increased after SAH. Administration of exogenous NTN-1 significantly reduced brain water content and BBB permeability and ameliorated neurological deficits at 24 and 72 hours after SAH. Exogenous NTN-1 treatment significantly promoted phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase activation and inhibited RhoA activity, as well as upregulated the expression of ZO-1 and Occludin. Conversely, depletion of endogenous NTN-1 aggravated BBB breakdown and neurological impairments at 24 hours after SAH. The protective effects of NTN-1 at 24 hours after SAH were also abolished by pretreatment with Deleted in Colorectal Cancer small interfering RNA and focal adhesion kinase inhibitor.
NTN-1 treatment preserved BBB integrity and improved neurological functions through a Deleted in Colorectal Cancer/focal adhesion kinase/RhoA signaling pathway after SAH. Thus, NTN-1 may serve as a promising treatment to alleviate early brain injury following SAH.