ARID1B haploinsufficiency is a frequent cause of intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and also leads to emotional disturbances. In this review, we examine past and present clinical and preclinical research into the neurobiological function of ARID1B. The presentation of ARID1B-related disorders (ARID1B-RD) is highly heterogeneous, including varying degrees of ID, ASD, and physical features. Recent research includes the development of suitable clinical readiness assessments for the treatment of ARID1B-RD, as well as similar neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently developed mouse models of Arid1b haploinsufficiency successfully mirror many of the behavioral phenotypes of ASD and ID. These animal models have helped to solidify the molecular mechanisms by which ARID1B regulates brain development and function, including epigenetic regulation of the Pvalb gene and promotion of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in neural progenitors in the ventral telencephalon. Finally, preclinical studies have identified the use of a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA receptor as an effective treatment for some Arid1b haploinsufficiency-related behavioral phenotypes, and there is potential for the refinement of this therapy in order to translate it into clinical use.