Several lines of evidence have strongly implicated neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s disease (PD) progression and l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. The present study investigated whether early subchronic pretreatment with the serotonin 5-HT receptor agonist eltoprazine plus the adenosine A receptor antagonist preladenant counteracted l-dopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs, index of dyskinesia), and neuroinflammation, in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA)-lesion rat model of PD. The immunoreactivity of glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein (GFAP), and the colocalization of ionized calcium-binding-adaptor-molecule-1(IBA-1), with interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor-necrosis-factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10 were evaluated in denervated caudate-putamen (CPu) and substantia nigra pars-compacta (SNc). The combined subchronic pretreatment with l-dopa plus eltoprazine and preladenant reduced AIMs induced by acute l-dopa challenge in these rats and decreased GFAP and IBA-1 immunoreactivity induced by the drug in both CPu and SNc, with reduction in IL-1β in IBA-1-positive cells in both CPu and SNc, and in TNF-α in IBA-1-positive cells in SNc. Moreover, a significant increase in IL-10 in IBA-1-positive cells was observed in SNc. Evaluation of immediate-early-gene zif-268 (index of neuronal activation) after l-dopa challenge, showed an increase in its expression in denervated CPu of rats pretreated with l-dopa or l-dopa plus preladenant compared with vehicle, whereas rats pretreated with eltoprazine, with or without preladenant, had lower zif-268-expression. Finally, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter examined to evaluate neurodegeneration, showed a significant equal decrease in all experimental groups. The present findings suggest that combination of l-dopa with eltoprazine and preladenant may be promising therapeutic strategy for delaying the onset of dyskinesia, preserving l-dopa efficacy and reducing neuroinflammation markers in nigrostriatal system of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.
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