: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during the pregnancy period is related to microcephaly and neurobehavioral disorders at birth, while prenatal exercise is supposed to provide neuroprotection in newborns pups. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurological consequences of exercise during prenatal ZIKV exposure to mice pups. : Twelve weeks female mice were randomly assigned into three groups: Control group, intraperitoneally injected with saline (Control); untrained group, intraperitoneally injected with ZIKV (ZIKV); and trained group, intraperitoneally injected with ZIKV (ZIKV/swim). There was one familiarization week prior to the beginning of the swimming training. Dams swam for 60 min/session, 5 days/week, during 4 weeks. Mating occurred between the fifth and seventh day of the first week of the swimming training. ZIKV 10 plaque-forming units/100 μl (10 PFUs/100 μl) or an equal volume of saline was intraperitoneally injected in the pregnant mice at embryonic day 10.5. Pup’s body mass and brain weight were measured at postnatal day 1 (P1). Behavioral tests were performed from P30 to P35. Thereafter, hippocampal levels of syntaxin-1, GFAP, IBA-1, and BDNF were measured. : Exercise during prenatal ZIKV exposure prevented brain atrophy, development of depression, anxiety, and disruption of social behavior. Exercise during prenatal ZIKV exposure inhibited the overexpression of microglia (IBA-1) and astrocytes (GFAP), with reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampi of female and male mice pups. No significant changes were seen in syntaxin-1 levels. : Our findings reveal beneficial effects of exercise during pregnancy exposure to ZIKV in mice pups.
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