Journal of the neurological sciences 2018 01 31387() 27-36 pii 10.1016/j.jns.2018.01.016
From the most common distal symmetric polyneuropathy (Bilgrami and O’Keefe, 2014) to the rare motor neuron diseases, HIV infection is associated with pathology at all levels of the peripheral nervous system. HIV infection can cause these conditions due to viral exposure itself, the resulting immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections found in untreated patients, and from the therapy used in treatment of the virus. Before the advent of antiretroviral therapy, 5 neuromuscular diseases associated with HIV often resulted from opportunistic infections. With advances in antiretroviral therapy, the etiologies of neuromuscular complications more frequently become the result of prolonged HIV exposure, comorbid diseases, and side effects of medications. In this article we review the literature on HIV associated neuromuscular diseases, emphasizing the more recent studies in the post antiretroviral era, but also reviewing conditions more prevalent in the pre antiretroviral era which continue to be seen in developing countries and resource poor areas. This discussion includes the following conditions: distal symmetric polyneuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, polyradiculopathies, myelopathy, myopathy, motor neuron disease, and antiretroviral treatment related conditions.