Neuropsychological assessment involves the comprehensive evaluation of intellectual, attentional, executive, social-cognitive, language, and motor functioning. Such assessments are used to characterize areas of strength and weakness, inform differential diagnosis, guide treatment planning, and evaluate change over time. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with varied clinical presentations, which can make the design of testing batteries and subsequent interpretation of results challenging. Here we provide an overview of neuropsychological domains as they relate to the evaluation of individuals with ASD.
Individuals with ASD demonstrate unique patterns of neuropsychological functioning across various domains. Recent findings related to intellectual, adaptive, executive, attentional, social, language, motor, and autism-specific functioning are reviewed. Clarifying the relationship between ASD symptoms and neuropsychological functioning is critical for differential diagnosis and for optimal treatment planning. Tools and methods for developing appropriate neuropsychological testing protocols for individuals with ASD are discussed.

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