Prophylaxis with zidovudine and 3 doses of nevirapine (NVP) is recommended for infants born to HIV-1 infected untreated mothers to prevent HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission. However little is known about NVP pharmacokinetics in neonates, mostly in preterm infants. We performed therapeutic monitoring of NVP plasma concentrations in a 32-week preterm HIV-1 exposed infant born to an infected untreated mother. With the recommended regimen, an intense NVP exposure was observed, with NVP plasma levels exceeding the target concentration by up to 40 times, suggesting that when a laboratory assessment of NVP plasma concentrations is available, it may be useful to monitor and optimize drug exposure.
Nevirapine prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission: pharmacokinetic considerations in preterm infants.