Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with complicated pathogenesis that includes both skin barrier failure and abnormal type 2 inflammation/immune responses. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may be a burdensome disorder that significantly reduces the quality of life, particularly in people with moderate to severe disease. Topical treatments, such as corticosteroids and non-steroidal immunomodulatory therapy, currently have limited effectiveness in individuals with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease; drawbacks include insufficient response, cutaneous toxicity from overuse, and poor tolerance owing to stinging and burning. Due to the sheer complicated and varied aetiology of Alzheimer’s disease, developing targeted treatments has historically proven difficult. Recent advances in understanding the immunopathology of Alzheimer’s disease support the development of novel targeted therapies. Following the successful introduction of dupilumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor subunit, for Alzheimer’s disease in 2017, a number of biologics targeting new cytokine and receptor targets are currently in phase II and III development. 

The purpose of this review is to investigate the rationale for these new biological treatments and to describe current clinical trials of these medicines.